The pendulum has swung from allowing battering victims a major role in criminal justice decision making toward mandating the state to initiate its own course of action-- be it arrest or prosecution -- even without the victims' consent or cooperation. Changes in Police Responses to Domestic Violence In the past, there have been three major police responses to address domestic violence calls in the U. This mediation resulted in keeping domestic violence out of the criminal justice system Rowe, Reforms in law enforcement often require practitioners to change past practices or revise deeply entrenched beliefs and views about the phenomenon they are charged to enforce Worden, a. He started the church in his basement and watched it reach a membership of 2, in his 28 years of leadership. Recent legal innovations, which have addressed reforms within the prosecution and adjudication processes, include conditions under which protection orders can be obtained and recognition of special legal defenses for battered women who have killed their partners Fagan, Estrada was accused of stabbing Sanchez, who was three months pregnant. Harold Hunter and his wife Patricia each were charged with second-degree arson days after the early morning fire destroyed much of Bethel AME Church, which has since been rebuilt on its same location on North Main Street. Police charged both with first-degree child cruelty. While this may be a benefit in some cases to victims, it may produce disempowerment of victims in other cases. The Reverend Arthur Allen was arrested Saturday and charged with interference with child custody. Common court practices employed by defense attorneys to defend batterers, such as attacking the veracity of the complaint and the credibility of the complainant, have made it difficult to convict the few batterers whose cases reach the courts. He says he is from the hometown of Jesus, and claims to have preached the gospel in 82 different countries. Do restraining orders help? When it comes to misdeeds by the clergy, Protestants can hang with the worst of them, breaking their own rules and a few that missed the book.