If the caregiver is chronically anxious or is depressed enough to be emotionally unavailable, the infant will experience danger. Bowlby considered this pre-verbal learning the essence of the internalized attachment system, and Winnicott noted it as the criterion of effective care. It is an especially cruel irony for partners that there is a direct correlation between interoception and the ability to feel empathy, both of which capacities are profoundly compromised in sexual addicts. As noted, if such external regulation is not available the sympathetic nervous system unleashes the neuronal and hormonal fight-or-flight reaction typified by wailing and arching the back, to remove the source of anxiety. Yet small insights are critical to reorganizing the self to higher levels of complexity. Yet clinicians must also be on the lookout for positive attachment experiences, as one good attachment figure may balance or alter negative experiences to a remarkable extent Siegel, Clinicians must continually assess the stage of work they are in with each patient to determine the appropriate distance at which to seat themselves. Thus therapists must be genuine in their prosody, as limbic resonance does not lie. Sensory input enters the body via visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory and olfactory stimuli from outside sources. As does prosody, gestures and body language transmit emotional states. This insight helps us comprehend and treat the behaviors and feelings that define sexual addiction. Field, Diego, and Hernandez-Reif found that infants with depressed or withdrawn mothers display greater stress-induced EEG activation in the right hemisphere than do infants with intrusive mothers, and suggested that disengagement may be even more injurious than the intrusiveness of a poorly attuned caregiver. Partners of such per- sons thus feel tremendous frustration when trying to relate genuinely with the addict, especially if the partner habitually tries to auto-regulate through an invasive, needy style of caretaking. Schore, personal communication, March 28, argues that severe attachment failures negatively impact this right limbic circuitry, producing an immature, inefficient stress regulation in the borderline personality. Above the brainstem is the limbic brain where the hypothalamus, amygdala, cingulate and insula lie.