Still, a small percent of individuals infected with HBV will develop chronic or long-lasting liver disease. These methods are more commonly used than the culture to identify sexually transmitted infections. Anyone who is sexually active is at risk for an STD, regardless of gender, race, social class, or sexual orientation. Which specialties of doctors treat STDs in Men? The HCV causes acute and chronic viral hepatitis C. Without the right precautions, you could acquire a second STD or a recurrence of the same infection. Early diagnosis and recognition of infections as well as counseling about STDs and risk can help avoid further spread of infections. However, sexual transmission of the Zika virus has been documented, and an infected individual may spread the virus to his or her sex partners. These persons are potentially infectious to others. Unlike hepatitis B, however, hepatitis C is infrequently transmitted sexually, so that it is unusual as an STD. Individuals with a positive antibody test can then be tested for evidence of virus in the blood by a test that detects the genetic material of the virus called the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. People can be infected through sex, needle sharing, and at birth, as well as by sharing razors and toothbrushes. Improved screening of donated blood has diminished the risk of getting hepatitis B from blood transfusion. One limitation is the "window period" of up to six months after exposure to HIV when these antibody tests sometimes do not find the virus. It's highly contagious and can spread through intercourse or direct contact with a herpes sore. People take a combination of antiviral drugs in hopes of preventing the infection from advancing to AIDS. Herpes HPV infection persists throughout life.