The snag is that it works both ways, and has been doing so for a very long time. Although advocates of the referendum quickly sought to contest the decision, it was upheld by a federal appeals court in February In parliamentary unitary systems, such as those of the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom, for example, legislatures and the executives derived from them were instrumental in the success or failure of such laws. Birmingham, who was presiding, moved for adjournment without considering the amendment, and his motion passed to For Rieff, the essence of any and every culture can be identified by what it forbids. On the Left, some pine for a hard-line opinion that claims of religious liberty or free speech can never, ever provide an excuse for discrimination. Civil unions weren't acceptable to the gay community in Massachusetts. I'll take a victory on this any way I can get it. Jackson, may have a more difficult time putting over an argument for the Court to pass up a ruling on that case, too. Early in the Supreme Courts of two states— California and Connecticut —struck down state laws limiting marriage to the union between a man and a woman. The three major schools of Buddhism —Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana—stressed the attainment of enlightenment as a basic theme; most Buddhist literature therefore viewed all marriage as a choice between the two individuals involved. And remember, they held out for marriage. Conservative Christians have lost the fight over gay marriage and, as we have seen, did so decades before anyone even thought same-sex marriage was a possibility. With respect to legislative action on proposals for constitutional amendments introduced In September , the state's highest court ruled that state law allowed for second-parent adoption by a parent of the same sex as a biological parent. Historians and legal scholars believe it originated in an upsurge of anti-miscegenation sentiment associated with the notoriety of champion boxer Jack Johnson's marriages to white women.